Synthetic fibers , also called synthetic fibers (in British English; see spelling differences) are fibers made by humans via chemical synthesis, as opposed to natural fibers directly derived from living organisms, such as plants (like cotton) or fur from animals. They are the result of extensive research by scientists in order to recreate naturally occurring plant and animal fibers. They are made by extruding fiber-forming substances through spinnerets, creating fibers like Aluminium extrusion. These are called synthetic or synthetic fibers. The word polymer comes from the Greek prefix “poly” which translates to “many” and suffix “mer” that is a reference to “single units”. (Note that each unit of polymer is known as”monomer.”).
The first fully synthetic fiber was glass. Joseph Swan invented one of the first synthetic fibers in the 1880s; today it would be called semisynthetic in its precise usage. The fiber was derived from a liquid of cellulose produced by chemically altering tree bark’s fiber. The fiber that was created by the process was chemically similar as the carbon filament Swan created to power his incandescent light bulb but Swan quickly recognized how the ability of this fiber could revolutionize textile manufacturing. In 1885, he revealed fabrics he made using his synthetic material at the International Inventions Exhibition in London.
This next move was undertaken by Hilaire de Chardonnet the French industrialist and engineer who developed the first artificial silk, which he referred to as “Chardonnet silk”. In the 1870s, Chardonnet was working together with Louis Pasteur on a remedy to the epidemic that was destroying French silkworms. The failure to remove a spill in the darkroom led to Chardonnet’s discovery the nitrocellulose that could be a replacement for silk. Conscient of the benefits of such an innovation, Chardonnet began to develop his own product, which presented in the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Chardonnet’s material was extremely explosive, and it was eventually replaced with other, more durable materials.